Yes, governance is complex and yes, many forms of knowledge and methods of knowledge creation are involved. Many think that it’s a matter of completing a puzzle. While neither governance nor the construction of knowledge work like that. Within the same governance system, very different forms of thinking and organizing can coexist, and the result is not a comprehensive map of the world, nor a set of compatible tools to reshape that world. Models and simulations are alluring but contribute to this forgetting that it’s not a puzzle.

Van Assche, K., Verschraegen, G., Beunen, R., Gruezmacher, M., & Duineveld, M. (2022). Combining research methods in policy and governance Taking account of bricolage and discerning limits of modelling and simulationFutures, 103074.